In adults, night terrors are usually more severe and often accompany other sleep disturbances, such as insomnia or sleep apnea.
Conjunctivitis - Wikipedia
Insomnia means that you regularly have trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, or wake up too early. Sleep apnea is a condition where your breathing is interrupted periodically as you sleep. Apnea is usually caused by the back of the tongue or tissue from the throat area blocking the airway when you are asleep. In these cases, medical intervention may help. Insomnia is usually treated with medications, cognitive behavioral therapy CBT , or a change in bedtime habits and routine. Sleep apnea can be treated with CPAP continuous positive airway pressure therapy, an oral device, or in some cases, surgery.
If the person has only partially awakened, he or she may not be aware of surroundings or remember the episode the next morning. Adults are more likely to remember their night terrors. Children with night terrors generally require only comfort. If a child is unresponsive during night terrors, parents should not try to wake the child, but hold them firmly and speak soothingly until the episode ends.
Usually, the child will ease back to sleep afterward. Parents should seek medical care for their child if the night terrors are caused by an underlying condition or are the result of a head injury. Relaxation techniques or talk therapy may help a person cope with the stress causing the night terrors. Therapy may include CBT, biofeedback, and hypnosis. Therapy is also necessary in cases where night terrors are caused by panic attacks, depression, or trauma of some kind.
In rare cases, a doctor may prescribe benzodiazepine tranquilizers to help the patient relax and sleep without interruption. Relaxing prior to going to bed can sometimes be helpful in relieving night terrors. You can start by establishing a routine of relaxing activities before bed. This may include:. There are lifestyle changes you can try that can help reduce the frequency of night terrors. One way to start is by creating a safe and calm environment in your bedroom. Afterward, incorporate your relaxation routine each night before bed.
Getting more sleep is another change that may help. A lack of sleep can be a cause or contributor to night terrors. You should also try dealing with stressors in your life. Look at what causes your stress and learn ways to handle the stress more effectively or, if possible, eliminate it. In some cases, therapy is helpful. You can also look for a pattern in your night terrors. Look for activities or actions that seem to happen prior to a night terror episode. Once you have identified some of these, you can either eliminate them from your life or move those activities to an earlier part of the day.
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But if you smoke your chance of developing TED is doubled. If you are a heavy smoker, the chances of developing TED is increased eight times compared to non-smokers. What are the symptoms of TED? These are the most common symptoms. See your doctor if you have any of the following and ask if it could be TED:. If you have puffy eyelids and puffy skin around and under the eyes and you have a severely under active thyroid, this is probably not TED.
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It should improve once you are adequately treated with levothyroxine thyroid hormone replacement treatment. TED can sometimes be difficult to diagnose and patients may be treated for other conditions such as conjunctivitis, allergy or hayfever months before the diagnosis is made. The signs that the diagnosis may be TED rather than any of these conditions are:. If you are smoker, give it up — ask your doctor for advice on how to stop, or enrol on a stop-smoking programme.
Patients with TED who continue to smoke respond less well to treatments, but this disadvantage seems to disappear soon after giving up smoking. Also non-smokers or ex-smokers are more likely to be cured of their thyroid overactivity after a course of Carbimazole CMZ or Propylthiouracil PTU treatment, than smokers. Further information about the effect that smoking has on TED is available.
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Avoid fluctuations in your thyroid levels — particularly hypothyroidism. Make sure that you have thyroid blood tests regularly, and follow the advice given by your doctor about when and how to take your thyroid medication. This will make sure that your thyroid levels remain normal and steady, which will give your eyes the best chance of healing and improve the way you feel. Discuss with your doctor what special precautions may be required, or whether treatment should be delayed. Selenium supplements — recent evidence suggests that patients with mild active TED may benefit from a six month course of selenium supplements at a dose of mcg twice daily which you can buy over the counter.
Can TED affect my quality of life? Yes, it is well recognised that TED can affect your psychological and social well-being. A more comprehensive differential diagnosis for the red or painful eye includes: . The most effective prevention is good hygiene, especially avoiding rubbing the eyes with infected hands.
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Vaccination against adenovirus, Haemophilus influenzae , pneumococcus, and Neisseria meningitidis is also effective. Povidone-iodine eye solution has been found to prevent neonatal conjunctivitis. The prescription of antibiotics is not necessary in most cases. Viral conjunctivitis usually resolves on its own and does not require any specific treatment. For allergic conjunctivitis, cool water poured over the face with the head inclined downward constricts capillaries, and artificial tears sometimes relieve discomfort in mild cases.
In more severe cases, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and antihistamines may be prescribed. Persistent allergic conjunctivitis may also require topical steroid drops. Bacterial conjunctivitis usually resolves without treatment.
The choice of antibiotic varies based on the strain or suspected strain of bacteria causing the infection. When investigated as a treatment, povidone-iodine ophthalmic solution has also been observed to have some effectiveness against bacterial and chlamydial conjunctivitis, with a possible role suggested in locations where topical antibiotics are unavailable or costly. Conjunctivitis due to chemicals is treated via irrigation with Ringer's lactate or saline solution. Chemical injuries, particularly alkali burns, are medical emergencies, as they can lead to severe scarring and intraocular damage.
People with chemically induced conjunctivitis should not touch their eyes to avoid spreading the chemical. Conjunctivitis is the most common eye disease. Acute conjunctivitis is most frequently found in infants, school-age children and the elderly. It is estimated that acute conjunctivitis affects 6 million people annually in the United States. Some seasonal trends have been observed for the occurrence of different forms of conjunctivitis. The occurrence of bacterial conjunctivitis peaks from December to April, viral conjunctivitis peaks in the summer months and allergic conjunctivitis is more prevalent throughout the spring and summer.
An adenovirus was first isolated by Rowe et al.
Two years later, Jawetz et al. Conjunctivitis imposes economic and social burdens. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Pinkeye disambiguation. National Eye Institute. November Archived from the original on 9 March Retrieved 8 March Elsevier Health Sciences.
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