After the dissolution, the name Atlus continued as a brand used by Index Corporation for video game publishing until Atlus in its current incarnation was founded as Sega Dream Corporation in September , a new shell corporation established by Sega. In April , Sega implemented a corporate spin-off in which the contents and solution businesses of Index were spun off as Index Corporation, while the rest of Index Corporation was renamed Atlus; the company has two internal divisions, P-Studio, responsible for managing the Persona series, Studio Zero, established in by many former members of P-Studio.
Atlus began in April 7, as a video game developer of computer games for other companies. In January , Atlus started selling amusement equipment, it expanded into the sale of karaoke equipment in March Atlus released the first video game under its own name in Puzzle Boy for the Game Boy.
Atlus started in the arcade industry in the s by manufacturing its first arcade video game, BlaZeon, in In its goal to further increase its presence in the amusement industry, Atlus acquired the manufacturer Apies from Yubis Corporation in In , Atlus formed a joint venture with Kadokawa Shoten to distribute and sell games.
Atlus suffered from deficit financial results in both and To address the issue, Atlus established a management reform plan in In its restructuring efforts, Atlus sold two subsidiaries to their respective employees as part of a management buyout. On October , Atlus acquired Career Soft , became the sole publisher of the Growlanser series: a real-time strategy role-playing game from the creators of the Langrisser series. In , after the release of Growlanser IV , the majority of Career Soft's staff was merged into the main development team of Atlus where they worked on the Shin Megami Tensei: Devil Survivor games; as a developer brand, Career Soft was dissolved.
On October , Japanese toy company Takara acquired Atlus. On 21 November Index Holdings announced the acquisition of Atlus, effective on 30 October, purchased 7. Atlus became an Index Holdings subsidiary on 29 November On March , Atlus and Sting Entertainment announced a publishing partnership making Atlus the only publisher of Sting-developed games in Japan. On 17 September , Index Holdings announced the separation of Atlus' amusement facility and related business into a subsidiary, New Entertainment Waves, effective on 1 December.
One hundred seventy-two shares of the subsidiary's stock were transferred to Chushoukigyou Leisure on 1 December. On 30 August , Index Holdings announced its merger with Atlus, with Index Holdings being the surviving company, effective on 1 October. After the merger, Index Holdings would continue to operate the Atlus brand.
Although fans were concerned about the company's future, CEO Shinichi Suzuki said that Atlus would continue to provide the "finest quality game experiences possible" and the merger "further strengthens the foundation of Atlus, both in Japan and here in the United States. From to , Atlus, as a company, ceased to exist and its name became a brand of Index Corporation for video games in Japan. Much like in Japan, video games continued to be released in that region under the Atlus name during this period. On 18 February , Sega announced the separation of Index Corporation's contents and solution businesses into a new subsidiary, Index Corporation, renaming the old Index Corporation and its remaining digital game business division to Atlus effective 1 April The new Atlus would include the foreign subsidiary, Index Digital Media, which would revert its name ba.
Orpheus Orpheus is a legendary musician and prophet in ancient Greek religion and myth. Some ancient Greek sources note Orpheus' Thracian origins.
According to Tzeztes, his home was the Odrysian city of Bisaltia ; the major stories about him are centered on his ability to charm all living things and stones with his music, his attempt to retrieve his wife, from the underworld , his death at the hands of those who could not hear his divine music. As an archetype of the inspired singer, Orpheus is one of the most significant figures in the reception of classical mythology in Western culture, portrayed or alluded to in countless forms of art and popular culture including poetry, opera and painting.
For the Greeks , Orpheus was a prophet of the so-called "Orphic" mysteries , he was credited with the composition of the Orphic Argonautica. Shrines containing purported relics of Orpheus were regarded as oracles. Several etymologies for the name Orpheus have been proposed. He is not mentioned in Hesiod. Most ancient sources accept his historical existence. Pindar calls Orpheus "the father of songs" and identifies him as a son of the Thracian king Oeagrus and the Muse Calliope.
Greeks of the Classical age venerated Orpheus as the greatest of all musicians. Poets such as Simonides of Ceos said that Orpheus' music and singing could charm the birds and wild beasts, coax the trees and rocks into dance, divert the course of rivers. Orpheus was one of the handful of Greek heroes to visit the return; some sources credit Orpheus with further gifts to mankind: medicine, more under the auspices of Aesculapius or Apollo. Orpheus was an seer.
Pindar and Apollonius of Rhodes place Orpheus as the harpist and companion of Jason and the Argonauts.
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Orpheus had a brother named Linus, who became a Theban , he is claimed by Aristophanes and Horace to have taught cannibals to subsist on fruit, to have made lions and tigers obedient to him. Horace believed, that Orpheus had only introduced order and civilization to savages. Strabo presents Orpheus as a mortal, who died in a village close to Olympus. According to Apollodorus and a fragment of Pindar, Orpheus' father was Oeagrus, a Thracian king, or, according to another version of the story, the god Apollo.
His mother was the muse Calliope, her sister Polymnia, a daughter of Pierus , son of Makednos or lastly of Menippe , daughter of Thamyris. His birthplace and place of residence was in Pimpleia close to the Olympus. Strabo mentions. According to the epic poem Argonautica , Pimpleia was the location of Oeagrus' and Calliope's wedding. While living with his mother and her eight beautiful sisters in Parnassus , he met Apollo, courting the laughing muse Thalia. Apollo, as the god of music, taught him to play it.
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Orpheus ' mother taught him to make verses for singing, he is said to have studied in Egypt. Orpheus is said to have established the worship of Hecate in Aegina. In Taygetus a wooden image of Orpheus was said to have been kept by Pelasgians in the sanctuary of the Eleusinian Demeter. Orpheus used his skills to aid his companions. Chiron told Jason that without the aid of Orpheus, the Argonauts would never be able to pass the Sirens—the same Sirens encountered by Odysseus in Homer's epic poem the Odyssey; the Sirens lived on three small, rocky islands called Sirenum scopuli and sang beautiful songs that enticed sailors to come to them, which resulted in the crashing of their ships into the islands.
When Orpheus heard their voices, he drew his lyre and played music, louder and more beautiful, drowning out the Sirens' bewitching songs.
According to 3rd century BC Hellenistic. Role-playing video game A role-playing video game is a video game genre where the player controls the actions of a character immersed in some well-defined world. Many role-playing video games have origins in tabletop role-playing games and use much of the same terminology and game mechanics. Other major similarities with pen-and-paper games include developed story-telling and narrative elements, player character development, complexity, as well as replayability and immersion; the electronic medium increases combat resolution speed.
RPGs have evolved from simple text-based console-window games into visually rich 3D experiences. Players control a central game character, or multiple game characters called a party, attain victory by completing a series of quests or reaching the conclusion of a central storyline. Players explore a game world, while engaging in combat.
A key feature of the genre is that characters grow in power and abilities, characters are designed by the player. RPGs challenge a player's physical coordination or reaction time, with the exception of action role-playing games. Role-playing video games rely on a developed story and setting, divided into a number of quests. Players control one or several characters by issuing commands, which are performed by the character at an effectiveness determined by that character's numeric attributes; these attributes increase each time a character gains a level, a character's level goes up each time the player accumulates a certain amount of experience.
Role-playing video games typically attempt to offer more complex and dynamic character interaction than what is found in other video game genres; this involves additional focus on the artificial intelligence and scripted behavior of computer-controlled non-player characters. The premise of many role-playing games tasks the player with saving the world, or whichever level of society is threatened.
There are twists and turns as the story progresses, such as the surprise appearance of estranged relatives, or enemies who become friends or vice versa.
The game world tends to be set in a fantasy or science fiction universe, which allows players to do things they cannot do in real life and helps players suspend their disbelief about the rapid character growth. To a lesser extent, settings closer to near future are possible; the story provides much of the entertainment in the game. Because these games have strong storylines , they can make effective use of recorded dialog and voiceover narration.
Players of these games tend to appreciate long cutscenes more than players of faster action games. While most games advance the plot when the player defeats an enemy or completes a level, role-playing games progress the plot based on other important decisions. For example, a player may make the decision to join a guild, thus triggering a progression in the storyline, irreversible. New elements in the story may be triggered by mere arrival in an area, rather than completing a specific challenge; the plot is divided so that each game location is an opportunity to reveal a new chapter in the story.
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Pen-and-paper role-playing games involve a player called the gamemaster who can dynamically create the story and rules, react to a player's choices. In role-playing video games, the computer performs the function of the gamemaster; this offers the player a smaller set of possible actions, since computers can't engage in imaginative acting comparable to a skilled human gamemaster. In exchange, the typical role-playing video game may have storyline branches, user interfaces, stylized cutscenes and gameplay to offer a more direct storytelling mechanism.
Characterization of non-player characters in video games is handled using a dialog tree. Saying the right things to the right non-player characters will elicit useful information for the player, may result in other rewards such as items or experience, as well as opening up possible storyline branches. Multiplayer online role-playing games can offer an exception to this contrast by allowing human interaction among multiple players and in some cases enabling a player to perform the role of a gamemaster. Exploring the world is an important aspect of many RPGs. Players will walk through, talking to non-player characters, picking up objects, avoiding traps; some games such as NetHack and the FATE series randomize the structure of individual levels, increasing the game's variety and replayability.
Role-playing games where players complete quests by exploring randomly generated dungeons and which include permadeath are called roguelikes, named after the video game Rogue; the game's story is mapped onto exploration, where each chapter of the story is mapped onto a different location.
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RPGs allow players to return to visited locations. There is nothing left to do there, although some locations change throughout the story and offer the player new things to do in response. Players must acquire enough power to overcome a major challenge in order to progress to the next area, this structure can be compared to the boss characters at the end of levels in action games; the player must complete a linear sequence of certain quests in order to reach the end of the game's story, although quests in some games such as Arcanum or Geneforge can limit o.
Video game remake A video game remake is a video game adapted from an earlier title for the purpose of modernizing a game for newer hardware and contemporary audiences. A remake of such game software shares the same title, fundamental gameplay concepts, core story elements of the original game. Remakes are made by the original developer or copyright holder, sometimes by the fan community. If created by the community, video game remakes are sometimes called fan game and can be seen as part of the retrogaming phenomenon.
A remake offers a newer interpretation of an older work, characterized by changed assets. A remake maintains the same story and fundamental gameplay ideas of the original work; the intent of a remake is to take an older game that has become outdated and update it for a new platform and audience.
A remake may include expanded stories to conform to the conventions of contemporary games or titles in the same series in order to make a game marketable to a new audience.
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For example, Sierra's remake of Space Quest , the developers used the engine, point-and-click interface, graphical style of Space Quest IV : Roger Wilco and The Time Rippers, replacing the dated graphics and text parser interface of the original. However, elements that had not become dated, like the narrative and sets, were preserved.
Another example is Black Mesa , a Half-Life 2 mod that improves in-game textures and models, facial animations, while taking place in the events of the original Half-Life game. Games that use an existing brand but are conceptually different from the original, such as Battlezone and Defender or Tomb Raider and Tomb Raider are regarded as reboots rather than remakes.
A port is a conversion of a game to a new platform that relies on existing work and assets. A port may include various enhancements like improved performance and sometimes additional content, but differs from a remake in that it still relies on the original assets and engine of the source game. A port that contains a great deal of remade assets may sometimes be considered a remastering or a partial remake, although video game publishers are not always clear on the distinction.